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Slide 2
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Know thyself
γνῶθι σεαυτό
www.Self-Reflection.de

Selbstverwirklichung durch Selbsterkenntnis ist der größte Dienst, den Du der Welt erweisen kannst.

Selbsterkenntnis ist die Erkenntnis einer Person über das eigene Selbst. Selbsterkenntnis ist eng verwandt mit Selbstreflexion, dem Nachdenken über sich selbst, und der Selbstkritik, dem kritischen Hinterfragen und Beurteilen des eigenen Denkens, der eigenen Standpunkte und Handlungen.

"Wenn du die ganze Menschheit erwecken willst, dann erwecke alles in dir selbst. Wenn du das Leiden in der Welt beseitigen willst, dann beseitige alles Dunkle und Negative in dir selbst. Wahrhaftig, das größte Geschenk, das du zu geben hast, ist das deiner eigenen Selbsttransformation."

- Lao Tzu

Slide 1
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Thou art that
तत् त्वम् असि
Self knowledge

Ein Mahavakya (Sanskrit महावाक्य mahāvākya n. "großer Ausspruch") ist ein Lehrsatz in der vedischen Literatur oder eines Sehers. Darunter werden besonders vier Mahavakyas hervorgehoben, die das Einssein des Selbst mit dem Einen (brahman) betonen.

Die vier Mahavakyas stammen aus vier Upanishaden, die sich je auf eine der vier Veden beziehen:

* prajnanam brahman (प्रज्ञानम ब्रह्म prajñānam brahman) »Bewusstsein ist Brahman« aus der Aitareya Upanishad 3.3 zum Rigveda.
* ayam atma brahman (अयम् आत्मा ब्रह्म ayam ātmā brahman) »Dieses Selbst ist Brahman« aus der Mandukya Upanishad 1.2 zum Atharvaveda.
*aham brahmasmi (अहं ब्रह्मास्मि aham brahmāsmi) »Ich bin Brahman« aus der Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 1.4.10 zum Yajurveda.
*tat tvam asi (तत्त्वमसि tat tvam asi) »Das bist Du« aus der Chandogya Upanishad 6.8.7 zum Samaveda.

Andere Mahavakyas

*ekam advitiyam »Eines ohne ein Zweites« Bedeutung: Es gibt nichts außer dem Einen Absoluten.
*neti neti (नेति नेति neti neti) »Nicht dies, nicht das!« aus der Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (II.4.2). Dieses Mahavakya besagt, dass das Brahman nicht beschrieben werden kann.
*Alles Leben ist Yoga - Dieser Leitsatz Sri Aurobindos wird bisweilen auch als ein Mahavakya bezeichnet.

Slide 3
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Jihad al-nafs
جـهـاد الـنـفـس
Self control

Dschihad al-nafs ist der Kampf gegen böse Ideen, Begierden und von Lust, Zorn und unersättlicher Phantasie, wobei man sie alle unter das Diktat der Vernunft und des Glaubens im Gehorsam gegenüber Gottes Geboten stellt und schließlich alle satanischen Ideen und Einflüsse aus der eigenen Seele entfernt.

Dieser Kampf wird als der große Kampf (al-jihad al-akbar) angesehen, da er viel schwieriger ist als der Kampf auf dem Schlachtfeld, denn im Kampf gegen das Selbst muss man ständig gegen Feinde kämpfen, die im Inneren der eigenen Existenz beherbergt sind.

Die islamischen ethischen Lehren weisen darauf hin, dass derjenige, der in diesem Kampf erfolgreich ist, sich über die Ebene der Engel erheben kann und darüber hinaus, und derjenige, der in diesem Kampf versagt, auf eine Ebene hinabsteigt, die niedriger ist als die der Tiere, und sogar zu den Legionen des Teufels gezählt werden kann.

Der Prophet (SAAS) sagte zu seinen Gefährten, als sie von einem Feldzug zurückkehrten: "Wir sind vom geringeren Dschihad zum größeren Dschihad zurückgekehrt." Sie fragten: "Gibt es einen größeren Dschihad als den Dschihad gegen die Kuffar?" Er sagte: "Ja, Dschihad al-nafs (Dschihad gegen das Selbst)."

Dschihad al-nafs ist der größere Dschihad als der Dschihad gegen die Ungläubigen. Allah sagt im Quran in Surah Al-Baqarah, Vers 216:

"Das Kämpfen ist euch auferlegt worden, während es euch verhasst ist. Aber vielleicht hasst ihr eine Sache und sie ist gut für euch; und vielleicht liebt ihr eine Sache und sie ist schlecht für euch. Und Allah weiß es, während ihr es nicht wisst." [2:216]

Auch Prophet Mohammad (SAAS) sagte:

"Der Kämpfer ist derjenige, der im Gehorsam gegenüber Gott, dem Mächtigen und Majestätischen, gegen seine Seele/sein Selbst kämpft." (Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah)

Dies besagt also, dass der Dschihad al-nafs, also der Kampf gegen das Böse in sich selbst, wichtiger ist als der Kampf gegen die Feinde. Die böse Seite in einer Person kann zur Zerstörung der guten Seite einer Person führen.

Slide 1
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Karuṇā
करुण
Compassion

Karuna (Sanskrit: करुण karuṇa als Adjektiv kläglich, traurig, mitleidig und Pali: karuṇā; Mitgefühl, Mitempfinden, nicht Mitleid) ist ein zentraler Begriff der buddhistischen Geistesschulung und Ethik.

"Verstehen Sie das Leiden der weltlichen Existenz.
Geben Sie die Ursachen von Unwissenheit und Selbstsucht auf.
Übe den Weg der Meditation und des Mitgefühls.
Erwache aus dem Leiden im Großen Frieden."
~Gautama Buddha

Er beschreibt die Tugend des Erbarmens, der Liebe und des (tätigen) Mitgefühls. Diese Geisteshaltung ist neben Metta (Liebende Güte), Mudita (Mitfreude) und Upekkhā (Gleichmut) eine der vier Grundtugenden (Brahmaviharas), die ein Bodhisattva auf seinem Weg, anderen zur Erleuchtung zu verhelfen, entwickeln sollte. Karuna ist eine Haltung des Mitgefühls, in der sich alle dualistischen Vorstellungen und die damit verbundenen Widerstände und Abneigungen auflösen: Allen Wesen und allen Erscheinungen dieser Welt wird mit derselben alles umfassenden Liebe und Hilfsbereitschaft begegnet. Die Tugend dieser Geisteshaltung wird im Mahayana-Buddhismus durch den Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara verkörpert.

Von dem Wort „Mitleid“ unterscheidet es sich dadurch, dass „Mitgefühl“ zusätzlich zum Wahrnehmen des Leids auch den Wunsch und die Tat beinhaltet, das Leid zu lindern.

"Like a mother who protects her child, her only child, with her own life, one should cultivate a heart of unlimited love and compassion towards all living beings."
~Gautama Buddha

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Wang, H. H., Chen, H. T., Lin, H. S., & Hong, Z. R.. (2017). The effects of college students’ positive thinking, learning motivation and self-regulation through a self-reflection intervention in Taiwan. Higher Education Research and Development

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Naeimi, L., Abbaszadeh, M., Mirzazadeh, A., Sima, A., Nedjat, S., & Mortaz Hejri, S.. (2019). Validating self-reflection and insight scale to measure readiness for self-regulated learning. Journal of Education and Health Promotion

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PORTER, J.. (2019). Why You Should Make Time for Self-Reflection (Even If You Hate Doing It).. Harvard Business Review
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Matshaka, L.. (2021). Self-reflection: A tool to enhance student nurses’ authenticity in caring in a clinical setting in South Africa. International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences

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Wang, Z., Liu, D., & Cai, S.. (2019). Self-reflection and employee creativity: The mediating role of individual intellectual capital and the moderating role of concern for face. Chinese Management Studies

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Yusuff, K. B.. (2015). Does self-reflection and peer-assessment improve Saudi pharmacy students’ academic performance and metacognitive skills?. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal

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Ćurčić-Blake, B., van der Meer, L., Pijnenborg, G. H. M., David, A. S., & Aleman, A.. (2015). Insight and psychosis: Functional and anatomical brain connectivity and self-reflection in Schizophrenia. Human Brain Mapping

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1002/hbm.22955
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Aşkun, D., & Çetin, F.. (2017). Turkish Version of Self-Reflection and Insight Scale: A Preliminary Study for Validity and Reliability of the Constructs. Psychological Studies

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s12646-017-0390-1
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Desrochers, M., Zhang, J., Caron, S., & Steinmiller, J.. (2019). An Experimental Comparison of the Effect of Teacher Versus Self-Evaluation/Self-Reflection Feedback on College Students’ Behavioral Observation Skills. Journal of Behavioral Education

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Toros, K., & LaSala, M. C.. (2019). Child protection workers’ understanding of the meaning and value of self-reflection in Estonia. Reflective Practice

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Greenberg, K. B., & Baldwin, C.. (2016). Use of a Self-Reflection Tool to Enhance Resident Learning on an Adolescent Medicine Rotation. Journal of Adolescent Health

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Eng, C. J., & Pai, H. C.. (2015). Determinants of nursing competence of nursing students in Taiwan: The role of self-reflection and insight. Nurse Education Today

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Kross, E., Duckworth, A., Ayduk, O., Tsukayama, E., & Mischel, W.. (2011). The effect of self-distancing on adaptive versus maladaptive self-reflection in children. Emotion

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Gerace, A., Day, A., Casey, S., & Mohr, P.. (2017). “I think, you think”: Understanding the importance of self-reflection to the taking of another person’s perspective. Journal of Relationships Research

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van der Meer, L., Costafreda, S., Aleman, A., & David, A. S.. (2010). Self-reflection and the brain: A theoretical review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies with implications for schizophrenia. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

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Yun, M. R., Shin, N., Kim, H., Jang, I. S., Ha, M. J., & Yu, B.. (2020). Effects of School-Based Meditation Courses on Self-Reflection, Academic Attention, and Subjective Well-Being in South Korean Middle School Students. Journal of Pediatric Nursing

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Travers, C. J., Morisano, D., & Locke, E. A.. (2015). Self-reflection, growth goals, and academic outcomes: A qualitative study. British Journal of Educational Psychology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12059
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So, S. H. wai, Bennett-Levy, J., Perry, H., Wood, D. H., & Wong, C. wing. (2018). The Self-Reflective Writing Scale (SRWS): a new measure to assess self-reflection following self-experiential cognitive behaviour therapy training. Reflective Practice

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Pai, H. C., Ko, H. L., Eng, C. J., & Yen, W. J.. (2017). The mediating effect of self-reflection and learning effectiveness on clinical nursing performance in nursing students: A follow-up study. Journal of Professional Nursing

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Wu, Y., Wang, C., He, X., Mao, L., & Zhang, L.. (2010). Religious beliefs influence neural substrates of self-reflection in Tibetans. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

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Costa, P., Castaño-Muñoz, J., & Kampylis, P.. (2021). Capturing schools’ digital capacity: Psychometric analyses of the SELFIE self-reflection tool. Computers and Education

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ACEVEDA, S.. (2020). VIDEO-AIDED SELF-REFLECTION A PEDAGOGICAL TOOL IN TEACHING BIOLOGY. IOER International Multidisciplinary Research Journal

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Khongput, S.. (2020). Metastrategies used by EFL students in learning English writing: Self-reflection. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network
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Petrulytė, A., Navaitienė, J., & Rimienė, V.. (2020). The relationships of problem-solving, anger expression and control, self-reflection and insight of prospective and in-service teachers. Pedagogika

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Pai, H. C.. (2016). An integrated model for the effects of self-reflection and clinical experiential learning on clinical nursing performance in nursing students: A longitudinal study. Nurse Education Today

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Rank, J., & Gray, D. E.. (2017). The role of coaching for relationship satisfaction, self-reflection, and self-esteem: Coachees’ self-presentation ability as a moderator. Consulting Psychology Journal

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Binder, C. R., Absenger-Helmli, I., & Schilling, T.. (2015). The reality of transdisciplinarity: a framework-based self-reflection from science and practice leaders. Sustainability Science

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Peshkepija, A. N., Basson, M. D., Davis, A. T., Ali, M., Haan, P. S., Gupta, R. N., … Anderson, C. I.. (2017). Perioperative self-reflection among surgical residents. American Journal of Surgery

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Nakajima, M., Hattori, Y., & Tanno, Y.. (2015). The effect of self-reflection on depression mediated by hardiness. Shinrigaku Kenkyu

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Stefan, C. A., & Cheie, L.. (2020). Self-compassion and social anxiety in late adolescence: Contributions of self-reflection and insight. Self and Identity

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Falon, S. L., Kangas, M., & Crane, M. F.. (2021). The coping insights involved in strengthening resilience: The Self-Reflection and Coping Insight Framework. Anxiety, Stress and Coping

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